Barely a week goes by where I do not see somewhere on social media (and sometimes even academic sources) a reference to the "Japanese" seven virtues of Bushido, followed by characters that are to be read in Chinese and mean something completely different depending on the timeframe. Even the oft-cited word/phrase “Bushido” is usually unpacked using its early 20th-century understanding as conceptualised by Nitobe and not its much older iteration of 1616 by Kōyō Gunkan. Moreover, as Alex Bennet recently revealed, the phrase may be even much older than that, with its origins in the Warring States Period of Japan. Adding to the complexity if the fact that there are numerous codes written by various samurai, and again, depending on the timeframe of composition, what is stated varies greatly. Interestingly, loyalty is often cited as the highest virtue, yet Japanese history is replete with assassinations, underhanded techniques, and consistently shifting loyalties for personal gain.
In my focus budo, karate, the same mentality is evident. Rather than being understood as variations on a theme, each ryuha (lineage/school) has its creation myth, usually followed by a parochial view of the art. What is interesting is that such narrow-mindedness is a relatively recent phenomenon. Go a bit deeper than the surface, and you will find most of the founders of karate cross-trained with various and multiple teachers - a practice frowned upon by most modern schools. Ironically, karate became insular after World War Two and its global expansion. Different theories explain this switch, but money and personal prestige played their part is such a development.
Interestingly, these founding masters are presented as the embodiment of Bushido, especially in its chivalric reiteration. There is no mention of the frequent visits to brothels, multiple and often illegal marriages or mistresses, families abandoned, alcoholism, gambling and other activities objectionable to modern sensibilities. Likewise, great fighting reputations are often based on hearsay evidence, not documented body counts.
Recently, this reality was brought to light again by my colleague and friend, Mario McKenna. For example, the myth of virtue assigned to Funakoshi’s Twenty Precepts usually neglects the rampant nationalism and militarism contained within Funakoshi's original text. Of course, Funakoshi is not alone in such sentiments; for many, books from the so-called "golden age of karate" (i.e. the 1920s-30s) are rife with such assertions.
Additionally, McKenna has recently uncovered the events surrounding The Nakano Spy school and its operations within Fukuoka-ken during the war. Perhaps the most harrowing of the events contained within this account is the use of karate to execute prisoners of war. Please read that sentence again. Take a moment to let that truth digest.
McKenna notes “The Truth About The Nakano School” by Saito Mitsunori, discusses the Aburayama Incident in which eight American POWs were executed at Aburayama in Fukuoka City on August 10, 1945.’ Yes, Japanese troops experimented with using karate to execute prisoners of war.
The main culprit, Mr S, was arrested and sentenced to death for war crimes, but his sentence was imprisonment for 7 years. One of the reasons why he was not executed was because his superiors consistently claimed they could not recall if they issued the orders to execute prisoners in such a manner. As Mitsunori explains, Mr S lived his remaining days with deep psychological scars.
Of course, as our TV screens remind us daily, war is a nasty business. However, next time you hear someone spouting off about the character-building aims of karate - give a short pause and remember those who lost their lives at Aburayama. Karate is a tool - it is the participant who wields it.
As always, a sincere thanks to Mr McKenna for providing the original Japanese link at: https://blog.goo.ne.jp/awamori777/e/efffd3535d7d0ed839e1fa50d44d6419. I highly recommend his excellent translation available via LuLu Press.
In my journey through Budo, I have been lucky to have had the opportunity to train with many of the modern luminaries in karate, Kobudo etc. However, training WITH someone should not be confused with training UNDER someone. In the former case, when we attend a workshop or even a deep-dive weekend with a notable teacher, we may pick up some key pointers that help tweak our technique or enable some self-growth spark. Thanks to the availability of online seminars, it is now possible to attend workshops with notable instructors to whom otherwise we may never have an opportunity to learn from and with.
However, I would argue that training under someone involves a much deeper dive into learning, knowing and being. While training WITH someone generally never moves beyond some technical and one-dimensional instruction, training UNDER someone enables a teacher/student relationship to evolve. If the teacher is good, they will learn the student's strengths and build upon them. In professional teaching, we call this accessing prior knowledge. We grow a host of inter and interpersonal skills and a more profound technical skills-based and expertise within a particular field of study. It is about a relationship wherein there is regular and deep learning that goes from the mundane to the profoundly personal. Time and frequency are central. There is a substantial need for contact over a protracted period; in the case of martial arts, I would consider at least 2 or 3 years to be the bare minimum, with anything less than six months not qualifying to say we trained UNDER someone.
When we train under someone, the teacher gets to know the student as an individual and can support their evolution of technique and understanding. There is an opportunity for the student to learn the methodologies, mindsets, and approaches sincerely that their teacher embodies. At a deep level, the student learns to see and understand the world through the eyes of the teacher. In essence, the physicality of confrontation is translated through the problem-solving knowledge and skills that the student has learned from the teacher. The learning which has taken place enables the student to think their way out of the problem. Their movements become unconscious as they have fully absorbed the teacher's understanding - at this level of understanding in martial arts the conscious mind has been replaced with the intuitive or unconscious mind - the mind is untethered from knowing and has become.
When done at its very best, the student leaves the teacher as a more fully aware and articulate human capable of navigating the world and its opportunities/challenges.
Perhaps this is the true essence of 守破離 or Shu Ha Ri, which IMHO is not well understood by those who lack patience and a willingness to work hard and be wrong. Outside of Japan this concept is often connected to individualism, which may miss the mark by quite a bit as there is a difference between 割れる , 看破 and 押し破る.
Once again, those who shout loudest and most without thought appear to be up to their new, old tricks.
With the illegal and immoral invasion of Ukraine well underway, the so call `voices of democracy` and their prestigious cancel culture are at their exhibitionist best.
Universities, Orchestras, school boards, and other places are banning the performance of masters of their arts such as Dostoyevsky and Tchaikovsky and releasing ballet dancers or conductors who are guilty of being Russian.
The current crisis moves from the ridiculous to the more ridiculous, with some universities using the war as an excuse to ban the teaching of Marx and one delicatessen in Quebec changing the name of its poutine to `cheesy-fries` as the homonym with Putin may cause customers distress! Sadly I recall not that long ago that some in the US were lampooned for changing the name of french fries to freedom fries when the French refused to support Operation Desert Storm. I wonder how history will judge these so-called patriots, given what we now know about that operation and its claims?
Sadly and ironically, the current name and culture dropping play into Putin’s hands. He now has evidence that the so-called `west` despises and want to eradicate Russia. Nothing could be further from the truth, yet those involved in this charade of social justice and virtue signalling enable his argument.
Russia, its people and its dynamic culture should be a gem we all enjoy and grow with and from.
Unfortunately, the myopia of cancel culture and its accompanying social-justice performativity will do little to further the efforts of the world to impose sanctions and support the Ukrainian people. Not buying products from Russia are in line with the sanctions; banning great works of Russia’s long-dead serve no public good. Aside, of course, that for providing the SNS influences with clickbait. Frankly, such actions as book banning and shutting performances down can become a silencer of discussion which the KGB at their zenith sought to achieve.
These works are so ingrained into world arts that banning them is a step backwards. To deny Marx his books and teaching in the 21st century, aside from destroying the discussion that should take place around his ideas and those they spawned, appears to reinforce rather than oppose the very values of democracy these so-called cancel culture vigilantes want enabling.
In its current political form, `Russia’ has crossed a line that most of us are rightly horrified by, but let’s not forget the UK, US, and their allies crossed and continue to cross such lines. Yet no one seeks or sought to ban the works of Shakespeare, Robespierre or Ben Franklin. To deny a younger generation, the brilliance of Russian masters serves no purpose other than entrenching an Us vs Them mentality reminiscent of the Cold War.
What has happened in Ukraine is despicable and has no place in an interconnected world. Putin’s actions are an apparent reaction to the forces of democracy as much as they are an affront to global security, the sacred cow of free-market capitalism - it is what cornered rats do.
We can oppose Putin and his action while simultaneously not losing sight that not all Russians support this war and that Russia has helped shape the modern world. I would argue we need Russia now more than ever. Putin current war - less so.
Not only can we do this, we MUST do this.
The world is a complex place, and these are complex matters; however, we should do well to heed the warning to history from Neitzche:`Whoever fights monsters should see to it that in the process, he does not become a monster.`
Although explored in several places with varying levels of accuracy and sophistication, in this post, I want to offer an alternative space and discourse on Ontario`s `Bill 67, Racial Equity in the Education System Act, 2022`.
As an Ontario certified and experienced teacher, I moved abroad some 20 years ago partially as then Premier Mike Harris was politicizing playgrounds with assertions that teachers were the playground bully. Any of us long enough in the profession will recall these dark days. I have lived in Japan and worked in international schools for the past 20 years and want to explore the current Bill in light of my experience and training.
I that the current Bill continues in the Harris vein and, rather than tackle the central issues it purports to address, it falls far short, opting for political showmanship rather than offering teachers and students a viable platform to address issues such as racism and more widely, prejudice.
I believe Bill C-67 harkens back to a time in the late 1960s when `paternalistic` thinking of the state led to the disastrous White Paper Statement of the Government of Canada on Indian Policy, 1969. This paper and the current Bill share similar DNA in that, without a large body of evidence and limited consultation and heavy handed approach is offered, when in reality it may not be the most viable way forward for Ontario and its pluralistic society. Indeed, many of the lessons learned from the failure of the White paper appear to have been forgotten.
Bill C-67 of legislation is poorly conceived and a shameful indicator of what happens when a lack of leadership and educational know-how is used to wallpaper issues that need addressing in a constructive rather than populist manner. Ontario and its residents deserve far better. Its teachers and students, should be given more respect.
Setting The Stage
Firstly, to clean up some of the misinformation currently circulating on the internet, this is a Provincial Bill and is thus not connected to the Federal Government of Trudeau. Education is a provincial responsibility; however, it must align with the Charter of Rights and Freedom, which itself may be undermined by the current government and its application of the notwithstanding clause.
Secondly, while some claim this as an Anti-white piece of legislation, as I will explore, it is far too poorly constructed to constitute such a stance.
Thirdly, Canada and its Charter are cognisant of international pieces of legislation, specifically in this case, the UN`s Declaration of the Rights of a Child, which guarantees, among others, the following:
The right to equality, without distinction on account of race, religion or national origin; The right to a name and a nationality; the right to protection against all forms of neglect, cruelty and exploitation and finally he right to be brought up in a spirit of understanding, tolerance, friendship among peoples, and universal brotherhood.
Without too more deep reading it is possible to see how the current bill, by enforcing racial, and geographical mandated grouping of children is at great odds with the UN`s DRC to say nothing of the politicisation of children. In a single swath the Bill manages, in the name of so-called anti-racism, to counterfeit the spirit of the UN and Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.
Catch-all Phrases and Ignorance
Under section 15.2, the Charter guarantees that `(2) Section (1) does not preclude any law, programme or activity that has as its object the amelioration of conditions of disadvantaged individuals or groups including those that are disadvantaged because of race, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, sex, age or mental or physical disability.` The keyword here for enacting the goals of the Charter is that all such government action aimed addressing injustice should ameliorate the injustice, something which the current Bill does do. Potentially it seeks the opposite. By forcing (or placing) students to identify as either one of the groups mentioned or unspoken the Bill treads on dangereous grounds of pidgeon-holing complex individuals into narrow identity bands. Within a Canadian context, where students may be multi-racial and multi-ethic, to say nothing of those who believe they are more that their socially constructed identifiers the Bill should serve as a warning for all Canadians and not those living in Ontario. Who is deciding who belongs and who is not? When has sharp divisions around external identifiers ever serve humanity well? Indeed are they not the root of the current issues which we are trying to overcome and address?
It is also not inconceivable that for First Nations and other indigenous groups, the gains made around band membership under the Federal Bill C-31 could be lost if they and their teachers are found to have contravened sections of the Bill such as those addressing `racial disturbances`. For example, if a group of indigenous students decides to hold a walkout to protest the poor water supply on their reserve, will they be deemed opposing on racial grounds and thus need re-education? If they seek more action from the Federal government to move on addressing long-standing land claim issues and students are educated about this in class, will they and their teacher be in Breach of the current Bill? What if a University student group marches on Ottawa supporting indigenous rights?
Where Bill C-67 reveals its deep-rooted ignorance is in the classification of Ontario citizens. It uses the term `racial` to encompass many groups that appear to have little in common other than being grouped and needing special attention.
Firstly the term `indigenous people` is used, yet it is not clarified to whom this relates? Are these the indigenous people of Canada? If so, what of indigenous people who have migrated to Canada, such as Pacific Islanders, Tutsui, or Hakka, to name but a few? Do Scandinavian immigrants of Sammi culture fall under this canopy? Have the writers of this Bill lived outside of Canada? If so, they may have missed the reality that many other places have indigenous people, some of whom have emigrated to Ontario.
Worryingly, under the Charter, Canada`s Indigenous people have been guaranteed special status. I have searched but could not verify if the current Bill was part of a consultation process with them? Or, as it seems, was it once again, something imposed upon them by those who think they have a right to speak on their behalf? We need a clear explanation if, once again, our indigenous people have been spoken for rather than spoken with.
Another myopia of the Bill as it currently stands is its conceptualisation of `anti-racism`. As it states:` “anti-racism” means the policy of opposing racism, including anti-Indigenous racism, anti-Black racism, anti-Asian racism, antisemitism and Islamophobia`. However, the notion of race is a highly contentious phrase and a socially constructed grouping which the current bill accepts: `“racism” means the use of socially constructed ideas of race to justify or support, whether consciously or subconsciously, the notion that one race is superior to another.` As I read this section, I was reminded of award-winning Nigerian writer Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie poignantly noting she did not know she was `black` until she arrived in America. Indeed, what it means to be `black` from a global perspective is by no means uniform, nor would it be uniform, I suspect, among Canada's multilayered, multi-national and diverse population. For example, Caribbean nations and societies tend to discuss colourism rather than the binary of black/white, something also seen in Brazil. Does Ontario have a consistent experience of blackness?
Of course, the term anti-racism is also made to include anti-Asian. Asia is a geographical identifier, not a race. Asia is multiracial. Using its definition, those Russians from Asia (yes, most of geographic Russia lies in Asia and is the largest country in terms of geographic size there) fall under the anti-Asia group. So for those who challenge this as anti-white legislation, only reveal their ignorance of geography.
A potentially diabolical situation is created through such sloppiness for social science teachers. How will they teach and explore the situation in Kashmir or Palestine without falling foul of Sections 1, 17 and 19? Will deep and complex issues which face us globally be shied away from by teachers and students for fear of needing re-training?
Will this Bill encourage competent people to enter a profession already experiencing a shortage?
Of course, China's international schools' section and that of Saudi Arabia are booming, so well-qualified Ontario teachers could go there to escape the potential pit of falling afoul of authorities. Or they could just move to another province.
Not Researched Based
The most significant shortcoming of this Bill is that it is just not aligned with the research into `anti-racist` training and policies. Simply exposing `others` to each other and punishing teachers has a long history of failure and, in some cases, has even reinforced racial stereotypes (see the studies of Sigelman and Tuch, 1979; Fiske and Glick, 2008; Levy and Green, 2009). Time and time again, studies confirm that Bills such as this one, no matter how well-intended, fail to deliver and may do more harm than good (Hughes, 2019).
We know that starting from an educational programme that places the student as an individual and teaches them frameworks of anti-prejudicial thinking ground in developing meta-cognition and complex problem solving DOES reduce prejudicial actions and thinking. Developing this ability to think with complexity must be part of all areas of knowledge, not just social studies and languages. There are several proven frameworks that, rather than being divisive and punitive, as the current Bill is, seek to include and develop the skills and mindsets for living in a pluralistic society.
While such programmes are positive and relatively easy to implement, they do not attract public attention or click-bath; thus, in the hands of a self-serving member of parliament, they may fail to get them that cushy job or re-election. The results of such student growth would take a generation or so to become visible at the polls - not so helpful for someone standing for re-election in the next few months. There again, is this not what leadership is supposed to do? Build for the future.
Most importantly the evidence is clear, such strategies work for students. There again, where they consulted by those who constructed this Bill? Who did have a seat at the table as it was being drafted?
In conclusion, this Bill, which may have its heart in the proper place, has addressed important issues very, very poorly. The Bill needs severe re-working, development and a sincere, long-term commitment to addressing the crucial issue of prejudice in our society. While some researchers suggest we are hardwired for in-group vs. out-group thinking, this does not mean we cannot use our sophisticated brain and its ability to use reason over emotion. After all, we do this daily!
While retraining may be helpful by using frameworks focused on cognitive growth rather than reactive, reductionist punishment Ontario can continue to set the standard for a purposeful and cohesive pluralistic society where all are welcome.
Having lived overseas, my personal experience and one supported by PISA suggest Canada is already a leader in global mindedness and intercultural competencies. Regarding such matters the world often looks to Canada for it has avoided (not perfectly) a number of the racial and ethnic pitfalls and violence that has ravaged so many other places, including my native country.
Perhaps the greatest incentive to focus on such meta-cognition and dispositions developments is that the skills learned will be transferable to other issues such as the environment, refugees, resource management and personal well being. Agile thinking and acting are more sustainable, productive and powerful than a citizenship cowed into submission by a government unwilling to do the hard work necessary to lead and address important issues constructively.
Adopting models for cognitive growth require a mature and reasoned commitment; one which will keep Ontario and its citizens as leaders and cooperators within the field rather than confused, naval gazing individuals stumbling backwards toward mediocrity.
Ontario, you can do better than this poorly constructed and articulated Bill. Please do so.
So as we are on the eve of saying goodbye to 2021, I thought I would, as has become the norm, share some thoughts and reflections of 2021. For the most part, 2021, at least on a global scale, appeared to be a repeat of 2020, except this time we knew Covid-19 was here; perhaps we had naively thought it would disappear by the summer?
On a political, global scale, I remain cautious. Activities in Ukraine, the South China Sea and Hong Kong continue to be a matter of concern globally. Likewise, the ravages of Omicron, although less severe than previous incarnations, continue to wreak national health care systems. Sadly, even in such dark times, the poor, most notable in the developing world, continue to fall far short of the developed world in accessing vaccines. When will the penny drop? We are all in this TOGETHER!
While some leaders dither, lives are being unnecessarily lost to Covid and those impacted by its repercussions. Likewise, a general malaise on the part of some does appear to be hurting the ability of health care workers to make an impact. So, wear a mask and wash your hands; at least, if nothing else, it will help decrease the spread of other contagions, thus creating some breathing room for our health care workers. Besides, there are some very fashionable masks out there ;-).
Today also marks the anniversary of George Nkencho; an Irishman shot at the hands of Garda. While the facts of the case remain unknown, they remind us of our collective responsibility to explore and expect complex answers rather than seeking a simple solution. Why the Garda shot and killed an unarmed man remains unclear. However, unlike other places, the family and guads continue to work together to resolve this shooting both recognising that the death of this young man is complex and in retrospect unnecessary. As Irish people, we know only too well the role unchecked power and profiling played in our collective history. As a nation, we must hold ourselves and those who represent us to the highest level of respect and competence.
Also in a political vein, the ongoing re-discovery of unmarked graves at residential schools across Canada is serving to highlight not only the plight of First Nations but how poorly educated the general population is regarding them. I recall as a young researcher visiting the `Fluffs and Feathers` exhibition at the Iroquois museum and being struck by the sobering realisation that for many, First Nations exist in a myth. They are not permitted to exist as complexities within the present.
As a former employee of DINAD and a First Nation, I witnessed firsthand the challenges such nations face. I saw how often nepotism, ill-conceived policies and sometimes downright disregard played out nationally and at the Band level made equity such a pipe dream for many.
Residential schools are a complex topic and simply placing them as an outgrowth of racism fails to understand and accept the depth and complexity of the issues at the heart of this grim past. What is needed is a deep commitment to mutual respect and listening. And yes part of this discussion MUST BE holding each other to account for failing to do so infantilizes both. Only with mutual respect, can the ongoing truth and reconciliation process serve as a bridge to rightfully return native people to their central place within a modern, multi-ethnic nation. However, the federal government spending 100 Million (CD) to fight land-claims it agreed to under this commission does not bode well. Perhaps the funds could be better spent in improving clean water supply and health care on reserves and native communities across the country? Likewise, holding band councils to the same standards of financial regulation as other local or national authorities may enable broken and divided societies to heal.
This year proved to be one of a few hits and many misses on a personal level. My health has continued to spiral in the wrong direction, albeit at a slower pace. Despite my attempt to correct a botched surgery, hip issues and lack of mobility are impacting lifestyle and well-being. Also living with acute Diverticulitis - which I may add is not so cute at all has made me feel rather sorry for myself on more than one occasion. Fingers crossed with ongoing work 2022 will see this trend reversing itself.
The trip to Okinawa to research Chinen (Chitose Tsuyoshi) was a highlight, meeting his great-grandson the best of all possible outcomes. The support of many senior karate people in Okinawa, Japan and North America for this endeavour was heartwarming and energising. What was not welcome were the angry voices demanding me not to write this history for to do so would detract from the Chitose legend. As I have said here and in other places, I firmly believe such views to be grounded in at worst self-promotion or at best a sense of misplaced loyalty.
The history of Chinen is one of the Okinawan people bereft of tinsel and rose-coloured glasses. The challenges Chinen, and by extension, the Okinawans faced as they sought to make their way in an unkind world needs to be told - for it is a celebration of the spirit of the downtrodden.
Thanks to ongoing conversations with senior instructors, the year has also been fruitful as my understanding of Budo, especially Kobudo and Karate, continued to evolve with age and retrospect. The enigma of Okinawan video continues to be a well, I drink from consistently.
Personally, the major highlight of 2021 was making contact with some folks from my past. It brought peace of mind which I had not known in a long time.
So in closing, this is my metaphor for this year is/was:
One is never sure how a pebble cast in a pond and its ripples play out.
Apologies for a rather lengthy absence - between work and budo the Fall seemed to disappear.
As I again take up the work on the early years of Chitose I thought I would share a translation of a work by his top ranked deshi Major Inomoto-Masaru. Intomote-sensei was a direct student of both Chitose and Akamine sensei, and currently is one of the top ranked swordsmen of the All Japan iaido federation. I was fortunate enough to be his student between 1998-2009, of which six years were directly under his instruction in Kumamoto (2003-09).
During these years Inomoto-sensei wrote and shared a number of ideas regarding budo with his students. Out of respect for Inomoto-sensei I have never shared or translated these pieces, however I believe the article below is `ok` to share as it helps reveal his thinking regarding Sanchin kata.
Indeed my decision to share this article was due to a recent conversation with my friend Mr Joe Swift. Over a recent chat Joe and I were discussing how we both believed the whole range of motion in a given technique should be given attention and not just its start and end point. As you will see below, this was an idea which was first planted in me by Inotmoto-sensei.
If you have done an internetsearch for `Sanchin Chito Ryu` the black and white video you will inevitably find is Inomoto Sensei.
The Sanchin I learned from Inomoto-sensei, while having the exact same embusen of the mainstream Chito version, was far more pliable in the limbs that I had previously learned under Higashi-sensei and Chitose-Jr. Such softness of technique is the bedrock of Inomoto Sensei`s Jikishi Ryu approach to Chito Ryu and Kobudo.
Inomoto sensei noted the body should be rooted like a tree, but the limbs, especially the arms should remain soft, like branches that blow and whip in the wind. This version also had many close quarter interpretations and was not focused on only developing a strong body. Below is a short piece of Inomoto-sensei`s thoughts on Sanchin. My thanks to my son, Aodhan and Joe Swift for helping with some of the finer points of the translation.
As these instructions were meant for direct students, Inomoto Sensei left some key words out. In an effort to add clarity I have added some words to help with the articulation of his teaching. To this end, this is not a word for word direct translation, as such a translation would miss key, background principles which were implied, but not written. To this end any misleading information herein, are a result of my translation and in no way detract from the ideas of Inomoto-Sensei.
興武館 館長 井野元 勝
Concerning the Three Elements of White Crane.
When we discuss the notion of the `middle` in karate/martial arts we are actually referring to the inside of the body.
Sanchin seeks to cultivate the strengthening of the internal organs, chi, and chakras through focused muscle contraction, tendon/ligament development/enrichment, and the utilization the power of correct breathing.
Such cultivation is learned through the practice of the Sanchin kata (aka three battles).
What is the meaning of the word "joint" within the White Crane System?
A special, but often missed aspect of training the Sanchin system, and by extension, the white crane is the role of joints. However, what do these joints refer to? It is important to be mindful of the sets of joints within the human body and your train, explore and understand Sanchin. Herein, the word "joint" refers to the three joints of the legs (hip, knee, and ankle) and the three joints of the hands (the three joints of the hand are the shoulder, elbow, wrist).
Moreover, there are also the joints of the shoulders, elbows, wrists, knees, and hips. The meaning and significance of utilising joints are gained through practising the "White Crane Joint Method".
It is important to pay attention to the intricacies of each motion, not just those on the surface. Focus on all aspects of the motion, not just the start and endpoints - that is what are the potentialities of the technique as it moves through its range of motions from its starting position, to its ending position.
The meaning of "搖".
In the White Crane system and thus Sanchin "搖" means "to shake".
Therefore, when faced with an enemy's attack at close range, the fighter will quickly twist his body to face the attacker, evade the attack, and unbalance the attacker. This twist motion also has the additional benefit of utilising the rotational power of the joints to generate power while simultaneously attacking multiple places at once, which we first learned in Seisan’s "13 steps" kata. Another means of thinking about Seisan kata is rather than simply thinking of it as 13 steps, expanding your consideration to seek to master the 13`shakes` or twisting kata. Mastering Seisan forms a bedrock to unlocking Sanchin.
NB+Jikishin Ryu Karate-do and Okinawa (Ryukyu) Kobudo incorporate all three of these elements.
All three elements are incorporated in Jikishin Ryu karate.
The more you train, the more you will understand.
Signed: Masaru Inomoto, Director, Koubukan
Usually, I do not like to explicitly point out specific places or people regarding misinformation on Chito Ryu, especially if they are not expressly tied to Chito Ryu. Still, the so-called `history` at the site (https://www.hakuakaikarate.org/history.html) is so poorly researched and checked that I must, in good conscience, draw attention to significant inaccuracies in its presentation of Chitose Sr`s history. Firstly, Chitose Sensei Sr did not serve in China. Instead, in World War 2, he worked in Kumamoto as a civilian and helped with the `national guard` during the latter years. Eyewitness accounts from his family certify to this. Indeed, there are no photos of him in military costume, among their collections. Secondly, while he worked with some karate groups on the mainland in the late 1920s and 1930s, he mainly lived on Miyako-Jima teaching karate and working with Kyan and Jyuhatsu. Thirdly, he did NOT change his name to Chitose Tsuyoshi until AFTER World War 2 - the adoption of this name had nothing to do with the other name changes he made in the 1920/the 30s.
Indeed thus far, I have found no evidence that Chitose Sr ever served in the Japanese Imperial Army. I must point out, however, such a lack of proof is not sufficient in and of itself to make a definitive statement. In Japan today, discussing wartime actions remains a taboo among those of a certain age. However, as research by Mario Mckenna and others (see, for example, https://mainichi.jp/english/articles/20181217/p2a/00m/0na/018000c) has pointed out, draft-dodging among Okinawas was not uncommon and indeed may have been the norm. Due to a combination of ambivalence towards the national conscription law and an awareness of the racism they would face, the majority of draftees were not overly keen (that is, putting it mildly) to follow in the footsteps of Yabu-Sensei.
Even on the mainland, there was a keen awareness of the inequality prevalent in the conscription law. For example, for those who could afford the 280Yen, they could buy an exemption. At the time, 280Yen was approximately half a months salary for a general, so it was a substantial amount. Footsoldiers made about 9 yen. Thus on the mainland, the conscripted army was mainly composed of poor farmers sons until mid-way through the Taisho period. Still, others, such as Kyoda Jyuhatsu, were too short to meet the minimum height requirement of 150 cm.
Another common way of reducing the draft impact in Okinawa was to graduate as a teacher, thus reducing conscription to 6 week stint in the army. For others, the option was to go to the mainland and disappear. Perhaps this may have contributed to Chitose`s name changes during the 1920s and 30s. However, this is only speculation and must not be interpreted as truth. Indeed in Okinawa, he kept using his official name during this period, thus suggesting the name changes on the mainland were done for other reasons.
I have contacted the site owners and will let you know if I hear back from them.
Bad history = ignorance and betrayal of Chinen and indeed the life he lived with his family on Okinawa
It is a privilege and an honor again to be able to present some thoughts from Mr Peter Giffen. Always articulate. Always thought provoking.
The Purpose of Traditional Karate - by Peter Giffen
I didn't want to post this during the Olympics, to disrespect the fine young karate athletes participating. But now that we are done, here we go:
With the Tokyo Olympics underway, karate is in the spotlight. I hope that its debut makes a good impression with viewers and helps to build memberships in dojos worldwide hard hit by the coronavirus pandemic.
While modern karate competitions are exciting — especially with rules that provide scoring incentives for competitors to execute high kicks — I think the karate masters who founded the different styles, and the todi practitioners before them, would little recognize their practical methods of self-defence in these contests.
Yes, the young competitors are highly skilled athletes who should be admired for their physical abilities and determination. But the danger is, people will perceive that you need to be an elite athlete in order to do karate effectively. This may have been what happened when judo appeared in the Olympics 1960s. Some experts argue that the Olympics harmed rather than helped judo’s growth, and branded it more as a sport than martial art.
Karate is not just for young athletes. It developed as a civilian method of self-defence, with highly effective techniques, including hand strikes, kicks, joint locks, chokes and throws. Anyone, any age can gain increased self-defence skills through regular and committed practice.
But the key is to stay true to karate’s purpose as a traditional martial art, and not get distracted by modern variations and attitudes. We have practitioners who just like to have a bit of exercise and perhaps socialize a little bit with other members. We have regimens like Tae Bo, which strip away the combative aspects of karate and turn it solely into a cardio exercise. We have parents who want to make their children a little more disciplined.
All these uses of karate are good, but you don’t need to water down the art to receive the benefits. The exertion required to do a martial art properly hones the body and focuses the mind. And yes, if adults want to get together after a workout because they feel a joint sense of relief for surviving a gruelling workout, that’s fine too.
If you want to become an elite athlete, that’s also good. But after your competitive career is finished, don’t just sit in a chair, looking at your past medals, and say to yourself, “Ah, those were the days.” Continue to practice and continue to grow outside the structure and rules of tournament karate. Be a coach, if you wish, but cultivate a personal practice of traditional karate that draws on your discipline as an athlete.
Traditional karate requires rigorous training so you can execute techniques properly. You must also train the mind to be focused and calm, so you can perform effectively even when pressured by a dangerous situation (such as being attacked) or a deflating one (you feel lazy and uninspired). You must continually push your boundaries and strive for self-mastery.
I have students who have come to me and say they don’t like violence or the idea of hurting other people. I say, good: You should train yourself every class as if you were going to fight for your life, or someone else’s. But then you should conduct your life in a way that you never have to use your skills.
If you practice in this way, the old masters would be much more likely to recognize their karate in you than in the rules-bound contests of Olympics karate.
The or A 6th Generation Toudi master? Lost in translation of something more nefarious?
At the outset, I would like to thank my Japanese colleague, Dr Nishimura, who has provided support for this research. Indeed, his work in unscrambling the connection between Kyan and Chitose continues to prove immensely helpful. However, although Dr Nishmura has helped and provided feedback on my ideas, what is written here must in no way be taken to infer Dr Nishimura agrees with the hypothesis or arguments herein.
Previously I have attempted to examine the myths, and exaggerated stories presented by some promoting the karate system developed and left to the world as Chito Ryu. At one level, these fanciful stories present the real-life Chitose as a version of the mythical Kwai Chang Cain and their worst, as an uncouth country bumpkin who was nothing short of a meathead.
Neither of these images, in my opinion, do the man justice. While those promoting such stories may have good intentions, what has emerged is that over time is a story that does not age well.
A central part of the ChitoRyu mythical canon is that Aragaki Ou, upon his deathbed, proclaimed Chitose THE 6th generation TouDi master. This was the first story in the canon that I heard and was impressed with, even though I had no clear understanding of what TouDi was or even who this person Aragaki was.
The above photo is from a joint publication issued by both the Hombu in Japan and the Canadian Chito Kai as part of the commemorative magazine and competition guide for the Soke Cup, 1998. In Japanese it simply states that Chitose was the 6th generation of TouDi, in English the story is significantly different. Such discrepancy between the Japanese official story and the one issued in English, may lie at the heart of the confusion.
Using this simplified version of the TouDi master lineage assertion, I will attempt to demonstrate in the following blog why this story may be as simple as something lost in translation, or indeed a fanciful assertion without much historical merit.
Fact Number 1.
Chitose`s Birthdate is listed as 1898. Aside from the fact that the Birthdate is wrong, what is of more relevance to the current discussion is that Chitose, or Chinen as he was known then, would have been between approx. 22 years old in 1920. While not unheard of, passing a designation of THE 6th generation toudi master to one so young would be highly uncommon, especially as Aragaki had more senior students, not least of whom was Gichin Funakoshi, who was preparing to move to the mainland and introduce karate there. As far as we know, Chitose was not a blood relative of Aragaki, thus making the passing on of such a title even less plausible. For those aware of the Okinawan adoption systems, Chitose was not adopted by Aragaki as either a son or son-in-law, thus furthering the distance between Arakaki and Chitose (Swift, 2015).
Who is this Aragaki O?
An oft-overlooked fact is that Aragaki O is an honorific title. It is not an actual name. It translates as honourable Aragaki (or Aragaki the older man). Therefore, Aragaki O could be many people for on Okinawa as Aragaki is a unbiquitious family name similar Tanaka on the mainland.
The assumption has been that the Aragaki referenced is Aragaki Seisho (新垣 世璋), a well-known martial artist who had traveled to China to study martial arts. As an official Ryukyu court Chinese language expert, Seisho moved in fairly illustrious circles, which included karate luminaries Ankō Asato, Ankō Itosu, and Matsumura Sōkon. Indeed, he and Matsumura are reputed to have demonstrated karate before a visiting Chinese dignitary in 1867. If we assume that this is the Aragaki to which the Chito story refers, we have a further two problems. One, while he did train in China under Wai Xinxian from Fuzhou, he only tarined six months+ hardly suffiecent to master the entire martial tradition of China. Second, and a central issue is that Arakagi has died in 1918, making the transition date of 1920 highly unlikely!
This fact demands a particular proficiency with the subtleties of the Japanese language. Indeed it was not something I had paid particular note to until my friend Joe Swift drew my attention to it. A direct translation of TouDi means ALL Chinese Martial arts, including weapons and the diversity of martial forms in China. Calling oneself THE TouDi master would appear impossible, although a master of ONE of the versions of TouDi is plausible. Even allowing for the fact that on Okinawa TouDi was an eclectic daily term, it nonetheless includes all of those Okinawan fighting systems influenced by China, such as Shorin Ryu, Uechi Ryu, GoGyu Ryu and Kojo-Ryu, to name but a few (Bishop, 1999). While there is some evidence that Aragaki played a role in the foundations of these systems none lay any claim to him as a THE TouDi master of his generation. Indeed, to state he was THE master would be fanciful, especially given that he had trained in China for only six months. Finally, nowhere do we see Aragaki referred to as THE master of TouDi. Indeed, history has passed him down as A master of TouDi along with the more other famous Meijin" (名人) such as Itosu and Matsumura.
The Kyan factor.
Thanks to research by my colleague, Dr Nishimura, we now know that Chitose was training with Kyan Chotoku by 1920. This creates a significant dent in the claim of THE Toudi master story. Why would Chitose/Chinen continue to train and learn from Kyan, who was about to embark on travels to China (Taiwan) and later Yaeyama Island to pursue a deeper budo study (https://ryukyu-bugei.com/?p=4158)? If Kyan did not claim to be a master of TouDi, how could his student, Chinen, be asserted as THE master?
Chitose`s own words.
In both his penned publications Kempo Karate-Do (1957) and the largerand still untranslated All Japan Karate Federation: Chito Ryu KyoHon (1971) Chitose clearly outlines that he is a 6th generation teacher/student of a particular lineage Shorin but not THE only one. Indeed in Kempo Karate-Do, he names other Shorin Schools, which have Chibana and Motobu as the current generational leaders. A similar pattern is shared in the latter position, although with the division between Shorin and Shorei. Nowhere in either of these texts does he claim to be a master of Toudi, let alone THE master of Toudi.
The vs A - an important article
Lastly, Chitose tells us in Kempo he started training with Aragaki in 1905, and learned Sanchin. The lineage he cites and the later work all point to him being A 6th generation of Shorin and Shorei Ryu schools. Aside from the fact that his presentation of these lineages is selective, what is of more pressing relevance is he does not claim to be THE Toudi Master OR indeed anointed as such. With the latter text, Chitose suggests that when he left Arakagi is was not under the best of conditions as there appears to have been a falling out. Having learned one kata and trained for seven years, the current discourse, at least as it appears in English, asserts that Aragaki appointed a fourteen-year-old, with no blood or legal connection to him, as the inheritor and head of the Toudi system: a fourteen year old who had no legal or blood connection to the master and had stopped training with him at least two years prior to his death.
Aside from the strangeness of such a selection, why would a well-educated and well regarded public figure such as Aragaki claim it as his right to confirm such a lofty title? He was a court official not one of the well-trained bodyguards such as Matsumura.
Aragaki`s age and Location.
If we take Chitose’s starting date at face value, Aragaki would have been in his late 70s and in poor health when they started training together. Aragaki died in 1918, so Chitose would have stopped training with him somewhere between 1914-16. On-going work by Scott Mertz indicates that Aragaki did not live in Naha during these years, and thus, it would have been difficult for Chitose to train regularly with Aragaki as the road system and transportation were not supportive of such mobility. Aragaki weekly traveled to teach karate at a middle school in Naha. Therefore, he could have instructed the young Chitose at that time or in private lessons afterward (May 2021, Personal Correspondence with Scott Mertz). Again, Scott continues to dig into this aspect of Okinawan history, so hopefully, more clarity will emerge.
Other TouDi Lineage Schools?
None of the current schools which trace their lineage to Toui-di or China claim to be THE Toudi Master. Those to whom I have spoken have never heard the phrase nor have ever heard that Aragaki used it.
So where does all of this leave us?
As I said at the outset, I do not believe the vast majority of those passing along such information do so with any ill intent. However, as teachers of Chito Ryu we do have a responsibility to pass on as accurate a history and lineage as possible - especially if we claim legitimacy via such lineages.
From what I have presented herein there are sufficient grounds upon which to be skeptical of this story. Based upon the evidence we currently have, it would appear to be apocryphal. However, such an assertion based solely upon my sense-making of evidence currently available to me and others.
New evidence may emerge that completely disproves my argument, and I look forward to the hypothesis herein furthering research into this topic. However, we must no longer be lulled to sleep by stories passed down by word of mouth. There is far too much good, scholarly work being done for us to remain selectively ignorant. To be productive members of Chito Ryu and all karate, we must and should challenge old assumptions.
So what do I think happened?
As my forthcoming publication exploring the early years of Chitose`s life, Chitose`s claim to legitimacy was established in Okinawa in the 1920 and 30s. There is no need for us to assign him mythical or superhuman attributes.
Likewise, based on what appears to be a poor translation which built up a life of its own, there is NO need to assume a deliberate intent to mislead.
Regardless, of which version of history we choose to believe their is no denting that Chitose was a man of his time, who rose to leave a powerful legacy.
J. Hatch (May 2021) Personal Correspondence with Scott Mertz. Tokyo, Japan.
M. Bishop (1999) Okinawa Karate: Teachers, styles and secret techniques. Boston: Tuttle.
Bowerbank, A (1998). Spirit of the Sensei. Toronto:Morris .
Chitose, T. (2000) Kempo Karate-Do. Trans. C. Johnston. Toronto: Shindokan Interntional.
Chitose, T. (1971) All Japan Karate Federation: Chito Ryu KyoHon. Unpublished personal translation J. Hatch, Tokyo 2001.
Quast, A. and Motto, N. (2018) Okinawan Samurai: Instructions to a Royal Official to his Only Son. Germany: Private Publication.
Quast, A. (2020) Matsumura Sokon:The Seven Virtues of Martial Arts. Germany: Private Publication.
Shimabukuro, Z and Smith, D. (2012). Shorin Ryu Seibunkan: Kyan Karate. Okinawa: Private Publication.
Swift, J. (2015). The Essence of Naha-te. Tokyo: Lulu Press.
Many thanks to 沖縄剛柔流空手古武道拳志會山口県支部 Okinawa Gojuryu KenshiKai-Yamaguchi Prefecture branch for putting this timeline together. I have translated it roughly and added a few key dates for those interested in Chito Ryu. The text below was posted on their Facebook page. I have shared my translation with them
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I made this video as a document on promotion to the rank of dan.
If there are any mistakes or problems, please let me know.
History of the title-dan system in karate. Super zany! Judo included.
Other Key Dates
For a fuller chronology of Karate key dates please see Hokama., T (2007) Timeline of Karate History: Pre-History to 2000. Trans J. Swift
James M. Hatch
International Educator who happens to be passionate about Chito Ryu Karate. Born in Ireland, educated in Canada, matured in Japan