Thoughts on International Education
Musings on Japanese and Ryukyu Budo
Thoughts on International Education
Original Article in the Keio University 50th Anniversary Commemorative Journal celebrating the founding of their Karate Club. Keio was perhaps the first university to formally organize a karate club in 1924 (http://www.uaa.keio.ac.jp/club/karate/index.html).
Thus this article is from 1974. The original text was provided to me by my friend and colleague Dr. Nishimura.
The translation was done by Nanami Hatch. However, all edits and mistakes are mine.
The first article is then followed by a shorter piece about Chitose written in an article from a collection regarding keeping one’s strength and goals later in life.
To my knowledge, none of these articles’ information has been made available in English.
Aside from the fact that the first article was written by Chitose, it is also of interest as it claims that Itosu was teaching karate at a local elementary school as early as 1901. Likewise, the second helps clarify what Chitose’s connection was to the Waseda University group.
Please note all sections in blue are additional information I have added to help give context or add clarity.
Story from Chitose Tsuyoshi’s writing (by Chitose Tsuyoshi)
The story of how karate, which had been hidden and forbidden to be taught in public, came into the public eye in 1901 (Meiji 34) is an interesting one. It was in this year that Itosu sensei started teaching karate at Shuri-jinjou primary school. This class was focused on karate as recreation and lasted for an hour each day after class. However, one day, during the student’s annual physical check-up, the army surgeon/medic and school doctor were surprised by how, when compared to other schools, Shuri-jinjou's students had bodies that were evenly and well-developed. Intrigued, they were curious about what kind of PE program was being implemented. This curiosity was aligned with the nationwide movement at that time which sought to catch up and surpass the West, though improving the country's wealth and strengthening the military. This movement was driven by a national motto, taught in all schools.
These surprising findings at Shuri-jinjou were immediately reported to the public servant for the education department of Okinawa-ken, Ogawa Tetsutarou. Public servant Ogawa enthusiastically listened to the characteristics of karate from Itosu sensei and understood the physical benefits. Ogawa, very impressed, then proposed it to a former Minister of Education. Eventually, in Meiji 37 (1904), karate was officially permitted for PE in the ken’s (i.e. Okinawa province) teachers’ college and Dai-ichi middle school.
Once karate was officially an accepted subject, Mr. Itosu transferred to the teacher's college and continued spreading karate until he passed away on August 9th, Taisho 3 (1914), at the age of 86.* Please note Chitose dates for the death of Itotsu while incorrect is only out by 1 year. Itosu we now believe died on March 11, 1915, after a 1.5 year battle with illness. Thus, he actually dies in Taisho 4 (see Anko Itosu, by Thomas Feldmann, 2021). This accuracy is of interest as until quite recently Itosu's death was debated in the English-speaking world - however as Swift (2019) has accurately shown through translations of Itosu’s death notes, this puzzle has been unanimously resolved.
An additional small article was found in the Bannnenn no chikara hittatsu collection (i.e. Keeping One’s Will to Power - Later in Life) regarding Chitose Tsuyoshi (1898~1984).
Chitose Tsuyoshi (1898~1984)
Born in Kumoji, Naha. Doctor and founder of Chito Ryu. His grandfather was Matsumura Sokon. His (i.e. Chitose’s) Master/teacher was Arakaki Seishou (1840 - 1917).
In the midst of a tea party, Itou (shun), Katsumi, and Noguchi went to their shihan’s house. There, Chitose Tsuyoshi, who performed at a recent tournament, taught them kata. Shimokawa-senpai was also with him, along with Egami – his senpai from Waseda University and Yamaminami and Miyata from Takushoku University and they taught Arakaki’s ‘chin-tau.’
NB: Excerpt from another page retelling how the Waseda University karate teachers visited and learned kata from Chitose, who had recently performed in a local tournament. This excerpt is of note for it clearly demonstrated that Chitose was not teaching at Keio but was teaching some of its instructors. Likewise, he was also teaching and moving in the same circles of karate teachers from both Keio and Takushku university, two of the more elite private universities in Japan. Unfortunately, there is no date on this article.
Of note also is that the relationship between Kyan and Chitose is not mentioned. Moreover, the different rendering of Kanji used in writing the name - Chitose Tsuyoshi points to the difficult of researching about O-Sensei.
Feldmann, T (2021)., Anko Itosu: The Man. The Master. The Myth.
Swift, J (2019)., Itosu Anko: Saviour of Cultural Heritage.
Okinawan and Japanese Budo
James M. Hatch
International Educator who happens to be passionate about Chito Ryu Karate. Born in Ireland, educated in Canada, matured in Japan