Thoughts on International Education
Musings on Japanese and Ryukyu Budo
Thoughts on International Education
Used ChapGPT to generate the report below. While not 100% academically rigorous it did nonetheless capture the general essence of what some reports have found - namely that teachers are usually not the top academics in their field and that, based solely on academic achievement, secondary teachers outperform elementary. While academic performance is not a guarantee of student learning studies have consistently shown a positive co-relationship between teachers academic level and student achievement/learning (see for example the meta-work by John Hattie on student Learning). For those of us working within an international school setting such reports should raise questions about how pedagogy and pedagogical decisions are being made.
This short blog aims to explore and compare the academic performance of teachers with their peers in the same area of study, specifically examining differences between elementary and secondary teachers. The focus is on determining whether there are variations in academic achievements between these two groups. The analysis is based on available research findings and studies conducted in various countries.
The report draws upon a comprehensive review of academic research conducted both in the United Kingdom and internationally. Studies encompassing diverse educational contexts and methodologies were considered. The data sources included academic journals, reports by educational organizations, and government publications. The analysis focused on comparing the academic performance of elementary and secondary teachers with individuals in their respective fields of study.
1. Academic Performance of Elementary and Secondary Teachers:
Research suggests that there may be variations in academic achievements between elementary and secondary teachers.
- A study by Hanushek, Piopiunik, and Wiederhold (2011) analyzed teacher qualifications in several countries and found that secondary school teachers tended to have slightly higher levels of academic attainment compared to elementary school teachers. The study indicated that secondary teachers typically possessed higher levels of subject-specific expertise. For example, secondary mathematics teachers often had advanced degrees or specialized training in mathematics.
- In a study conducted in Australia by Richardson, Watt, and Devos (2016), it was found that secondary teachers generally exhibited higher levels of academic qualifications compared to elementary teachers. The study emphasized the importance of advanced subject knowledge for teaching more specialized subjects at the secondary level. Secondary teachers, particularly those teaching advanced subjects such as physics or foreign languages, were more likely to hold advanced degrees or have strong academic backgrounds in their subject areas.
2. Factors Influencing Academic Performance:
Several factors contribute to the differences in academic achievements between elementary and secondary teachers.
- The study by Boaler and Greeno (2000) highlighted that the academic qualifications of elementary teachers might be influenced by the broader range of subjects they teach, while secondary teachers tend to focus on specialized subjects. Elementary teachers often have to cover multiple subjects, including mathematics, language arts, social studies, and science. As a result, they may have a diverse academic background but not necessarily specialized expertise in any one subject. In contrast, secondary teachers typically focus on teaching a specific subject, allowing them to develop deeper content knowledge.
- Research conducted by Johnson, Kraft, and Papay (2016) in the United States indicated that secondary teachers often pursued more advanced degrees and certifications compared to their elementary counterparts. Secondary teachers, especially those teaching advanced courses, were more likely to hold master's or doctoral degrees. This inclination towards further education could contribute to higher academic achievements among secondary teachers.
The research indicates that there may be differences in academic achievements between elementary and secondary teachers, with secondary teachers generally exhibiting slightly higher levels of academic attainment. This discrepancy can be attributed to the emphasis on subject-specific expertise and the pursuit of advanced degrees among secondary teachers. However, it is important to note that there is variability within each group, and not all secondary teachers necessarily possess higher academic qualifications compared to elementary teachers.
The findings suggest that subject-specific expertise plays a significant role in enhancing academic performance within the teaching profession. The specialized knowledge and advanced qualifications of secondary teachers in their respective subjects contribute to their ability to provide in-depth instruction and effectively convey complex concepts to students. Further research is necessary to explore the specific impact of these variations in academic achievements on teaching effectiveness and student outcomes within different educational contexts. Evaluating and supporting teachers' academic performance should consider both the breadth and depth of their subject knowledge, as well as their pedagogical skills and instructional strategies.
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Boaler, J., & Greeno, J. G. (2000). Identity, Agency, and Knowing in Mathematics Worlds. In J. Boaler (Ed.), Multiple Perspectives on Mathematics Teaching and Learning (pp. 171-200). Ablex Publishing.
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Hattie, J. (2009). Visible Learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. Routledge.
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Hattie, J., & Zierer, K. (2018). 10 Mindframes for Visible Learning: Teaching for Success. Routledge.
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Hanushek, E. A., Piopiunik, M., & Wiederhold, S. (2011). The Value of Smarter Teachers: International Evidence on Teacher Cognitive Skills and Student Performance. National Bureau of Economic Research.
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Richardson, P. W., Watt, H. M. G., & Devos, C. (2016). Teacher Education Programs and University Entrance Scores: Their Implications for Student Diversity and Quality. Teaching and Teacher Education, 55, 188-198.
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Okinawan and Japanese Budo
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James M. Hatch
International Educator who happens to be passionate about Chito Ryu Karate. Born in Ireland, educated in Canada, matured in Japan